Importance of Soil science

 

 Agricultural soil science is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber. In this context, it is also a constituent of the field of agronomy and is thus also described as soil agronomy. Agricultural soil science follows the holistic method. Soil is investigated in relation to and as integral part of terrestrial ecosystems but is also recognized as a manageable natural resource.

 Agricultural soil science studies the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to agriculture. Agricultural soil scientists develop methods that will improve the use of soil and increase the production of food and fiber crops. Emphasis continues to grow on the importance of soil sustainability. Soil degradation such as erosion, compaction, lowered fertility, and contamination continue to be serious concerns. They conduct research in irrigation and drainage, tillage, soil classification, plant nutrition, soil fertility and other areas.

 Although maximizing plant (and thus animal) production is a valid goal, sometimes it may come at high cost which can be readily evident (e.g. massive crop disease stemming from monoculture) or long-term (e.g. impact of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on human health). An agricultural soil scientist may come up with a plan that can maximize production using sustainable methods and solutions, and in order to do that he must look into a number of science fields including agricultural science, physics, chemistry, biology, meteorology and geology.


 


Sr. no.

Name

Use

1

Beaker (glassware)

eakers are generally cylindrical in shape, with a flat bottom.[1] Most also have a small spout (or "beak") to aid pouring as shown in the picture. Beakers are available in a wide range of sizes, from one millilitre up to several litres

2

Boiling tube

A boiling tube is a small cylindrical vessel used to strongly heat substances in the flame of a Bunsen burner. A boiling tube is essentially a scaled-up test tube, being about 50% larger.

3

Burette

A burette (also buret) is a laboratory equipment used in analytical chemistry for the dispensing of variable amount of a chemical solution and measuring that amount at the same time. It is a long, graduated glass tube, with a stopcock at its lower end and a tapered capillary tube at the stopcock's outlet. The flow of liquid from the tube to the burette tip is controlled by the stopcock valve. There are two main types of burette; the volumetric burette and the Piston burette or Digital burette.

4

Volumetric flask

A volumetric flask (measuring flask or graduated flask) is a piece of laboratory glassware, a type of laboratory flask, calibrated to contain a precise volume at a particular temperature. Volumetric flasks are used for precise dilutions and preparation of standard solutions. These flasks are usually pear-shaped, with a flat bottom, and made of glass or plastic. The flask's mouth is either furnished with a plastic snap/screw cap or fitted with a joint to accommodate a PTFE or glass stopper. The neck of the volumetric flasks is elongated and narrow with an etched ring graduation marking. The marking indicates the volume of liquid contained when filled up to that point. The marking is typically calibrated "to contain" (marked "TC" or "IN") at 20 °C and indicated correspondingly on a label. The flask's label also indicates the nominal volume, tolerance, precision class, relevant manufacturing standard and the manufacturer’s logo. The volumetric flasks are of various sizes, containing from 1 to 20 000 mL of liquid.

5

conical flask

An Erlenmeyer flask, also known as a conical flask (BrE)[1] or titration flask, is a type of laboratory flask which features a flat bottom, a conical body, and a cylindrical neck. It is named after the German chemist Emil Erlenmeyer (1825–1909), who created it in 1860.

 

Pipette

A pipette (sometimes spelled pipet) is a laboratory tool commonly used in chemistry, biology and medicine to transport a measured volume of liquid, often as a media dispenser. Pipettes come in several designs for various purposes with differing levels of accuracy and precision, from single piece glass pipettes to more complex adjustable or electronic pipettes. Many pipette types work by creating a partial vacuum above the liquid-holding chamber and selectively releasing this vacuum to draw up and dispense liquid. Measurement accuracy varies greatly depending on the style.

 

Spectrophotometry

In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.[2] It is more specific than the general term electromagnetic spectroscopy in that spectrophotometry deals with visible light, near-ultraviolet, and near-infrared, but does not cover time-resolved spectroscopic techniques.

 

pH indicator

A pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually. Hence, a pH indicator is a chemical detector for hydronium ions (H3O+) or hydrogen ions (H+) in the Arrhenius model. Normally, the indicator causes the color of the solution to change depending on the pH. Indicators can also show change in other physical properties; for example, olfactory indicators show change in their odor. The pH value of a neutral solution is 7.0. Solutions with a pH value below 7.0 are considered acidic and solutions with pH value above 7.0 are basic (alkaline). As most naturally occurring organic compounds are weak protolytes, carboxylic acids and amines, pH indicators find many applications in biology and analytical chemistry. Moreover, pH indicators form one of the three main types of indicator compounds used in chemical analysis. For the quantitative analysis of metal cations, the use of complexometric indicators is preferred,[1][2] whereas the third compound class, the redox indicators, are used in titrations involving a redox reaction as the basis of the analysis.

 

Litmus

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

 

Test tube

A test tube, also known as a culture tube or sample tube, is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger-like length of glass or clear plastic tubing, open at the top and closed at the bottom.